Young Blood's & Morning Star's Home of Information

Blackfoot Gentes

The tribes of the Siksika Confederacy were further subdivided into gentes. A gens was a division centered on patrilineal consanguinal kindred. This division is roughly the same in context as a blood related band structure.  

The gentes listed below denote the band structure of the Siksika Confederacy at its height in the mid to late 19th Century. The names for the gentes are generally derived from a trait or habit as exhibited by the specific group.

Note that the gentes listed for the Pikuni are those before the Pikuni was separated into the Northern and Southern Pikuni by the establishment of the international border between the United States and Canada.

It must also be noted that where a gens appears in more than one tribe, as the Apikaiyiks (Skunks) gens appears in all three, this is due to intermarriage and the establishment of the gens from one tribe to the other.

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Siksika (means Blackfoot)

Puhksinahmakyiks - Flat Bows
Motahtosiks - Many Medicines
Siksinokaks - Black Elks
Emitahpahksaiyiks - Dogs Naked
Saiyiks - Liars
Aisikstukiks - Biters
Tsiniktsistsoyiks - Early Finished Eating
Apikaiyiks - Skunks

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Kainah
Siksinokaks - Black Elks
Ahkwonistsis - Many Lodge Poles
Aputosikainah - North Bloods
Istsikainah - Woods Bloods
Inuhksoyistamiks - Long Tail Lodge Poles
Nitikskiks - Lone Fighters
Siksahpunik - Blackblood
Ahkaiksumiks - ???????????
Isisokasimiks - Hair Shirts
Ahkaipokaks - Many Children
Saksinahmahyiks - Short Bows
Apikaiyiks - Skunks
Ahkotashiks - Many Horses

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Pikuni
Ahpaitupiks - Blood People
Ahkaiyikokakiniks - White Breasts
Kiyis - Dried Meat
Sikutsipumiks - Black Patched Moccasins
Sikopoksimoiks - Blackfat Roasters
Tsiniktsistsoyiks - Early Finished Eating
Kutaiimiks - They Don?t Laugh
Ipoksimaiks - Fat Roasters
Sikokitsimiks - Black Doors
Nitawyiks - Lone Eaters
Apikaiyiks - Skunks
Miahwahpitsiks - Seldom Lonesome
Nitakoskitsipupiks - Obstinate
Nitikskiks - Lone Fighters
Inuksiks - Small Robes
Miawkkinaiyiks - Big Topknots
Esksinaitupiks - Worm People
Inuksikahkopwaiks - Small Brittle Fat
Kahmitaiks - Buffalo Dung
Kutaisotsiman - No Parfleche
Nitotsiksisstaniks - Kill Close By
Motwainaiks - All Chiefs
Mokumiks - Red Round Robes
Motahtosiks - Many Medicines

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A Little History of the Clans

North - Purity and Renewal 
Moon: Earth Renewal Moon 
Spirit Keeper of the North 
December 22 to January 19 
*** Blackfoot *** 
DECEMBER - IS-STA-M-SII-WA - COLD MONTH 
JANUARY - KAA-TOO-Yll- SNOW BLINDNESS   

Power Animal: Snow goose
Mineral: Quartz crystal
Color: White
Plant: Birch tree
Clan: Turtle
Element: Earth

Characteristics: The Earth Renewal Moon is the first moon of the year and the first moon of Waboose, Spirit Keeper of the North. This moon begins at the time of the winter solstice when Father Sun returns from his journey South and begins to bring the warmth that quickens growth in the Earth Mother and all her children. The stone representing this moon is placed one quarter of the way to the East in the northern quadrant, moving clockwise. The mineral totem for the Earth Renewal Moon is the quartz crystal, the plant is the birch tree, and the animal is the snow goose. The color is white. The elemental clan influencing this position is the Turtle clan. 

The Earth Renewal Moon teaches you to be as clear a receiver and transmitter of universal energy as the crystal, as important a communicator of the ancient knowledge as the birch tree, and as respectful of tradition and ritual as the snow goose. This is a position with the potential for great power. The Earth Renewal Moon teaches you to be fluid, yet proper in conduct as well as clear, adaptable, prudent, and wise. People in this position have keen vision, are good ceremonialists, and can take large steps in their personal evolution. Snow goose people need to guard against becoming blocked, against using their enormous power incorrectly, and against being so perfectionist they never have time for fun.

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Moon: Rest & Cleansing Moon 
January 20 to February 18 
*** Blackfoot *** 
JANUARY - KAA-TOO-Yll - SNOW BLINDNESS 
FEBRUARY - SA-OM-MI-TSI-KSI-SOM -TREACHEROUS MOON 

Power Animal: Otter
Mineral: Silver
Color: Silver
Plant: Quaking aspen
Clan: Butterfly
Element: Air

Characteristics: The Rest and Cleansing Moon is the second moon of Waboose. The stone for this moon is placed midway between the northern and eastern stones. Silver is the mineral totem for the Rest and Cleansing Moon, the quaking aspen is the plant totem, the otter is the animal totem, and silver is the color. This position is influenced by the Butterfly clan. 

People experiencing this moon are considered as valuable as silver, as light?hearted as the music of aspen leaves, and as playful as the otter. The otter position can help you truly to like people, yourself included, and to be more humanitarian in your views. This is a time when you can excel in communicating, in developing your intellect, and in romance. The Rest and Cleansing Moon can help you both to develop your psychic abilities and to uncover the clever, bold, humanitarian, and gentle aspects of your own being. Although otter people have the potential to be noble and loving, they need to guard against dreaming so much that none of their noble ideas ever become reality.

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Moon: Big Wind?s Moon 
February 19 to March 20 
*** Blackfoot *** 
February - Sa-Om-Mi-Tsi-Som - Treacherous Moon 
March - Sai-Ksi-O-Tsi-Tot-Toh-Pi - When the Geese Come

Moon: Big wind?s moon
Power Animal: Cougar
Mineral: Turquoise
Color: Blue and green
Plant: Plantain
Clan: Frog
Element: Water

Characteristics: The Big Winds Moon is the last moon of Waboose, Spirit Keeper of the North. The stone representing this moon is placed three quarters of the way between North and East. The mineral totem for the Big Winds Moon is turquoise, the plant is the plantain, the animal is the cougar, the colors are blue and green, and the elemental clan influence is that of the Frog Clan.

Turquoise can teach people in this position about the real meaning of value and about protection, the plantain can teach them about their healing abilities, and the cougar can teach them about mystery and the need to establish safe territory. The Big Winds Moon can help you discover your own natural medicine power and the depth of your psychic abilities. In this position you will learn about your deep sensitivity, your yearning for spirituality, your hesitation to express your true feelings, and your need for grounding on the earth. People experiencing the Big Winds Moon can be prone to moodiness and to melancholy. They need to learn to temper their sensitivity and to have a greater sense of reality.

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EAST - ILLUMINATION
and WISDOM 
Moon: Budding Tree?s Moon 
Spirit keeper of the East 
March 21 to April 19 
*** Blackfoot *** 
March - Sai-Ksi-O-Tsi-Tot-Toh-Pi - When the Geese Come 
April - Ma-Tsi-Yik-Ka-Pi-Sai-Ki*S- Frog Month

Power Animal: Red Tail Hawk
Mineral: Fire opal
Color: Yellow
Plant: Dandelion
Clan: Thunderbird
Element: Fire

Characteristics: The Budding Trees Moon is the first moon of Wabun, Spirit Keeper of the East and occurs at the time of the spring equinox. The stone for this moon is placed one quarter of the way between the eastern and southern stones in the outer circle. The mineral totem for the Budding Trees Moon is the fire opal, the plant is the dandelion, and the animal is the red-tailed hawk. The color is yellow.

This position is directly influenced by the Thunderbird clan. The fire opal can teach people in this position about the need for water the emotions in tempering their fiery energy. The dandelion can show them the advantages of taking root as well as flying. The red-tailed hawk can demonstrate the joy of freedom and of a long, clear view. The Budding Trees Moon will teach you about energy, intensity, catalyzing change, fearlessness, and optimism. Being in this position will show you your leadership ability, the enormity of your own spirit, and the extent of your Clear sightedness. People experiencing the Budding Trees Moon need to learn to channel their energies, contain their emotions, and be more patient with others.

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Moon: Frog?s Return Moon; New Waters Moon 
April 20 to May 20 
*** Blackfoot *** 
April - Ma-Tsi-Yik-Ka-Pi-Sai-Ki*S- Frog Month 
May - 0-TSI-KSS-TSI?O-TSI-TAI-TS-IH-PI - 

Power Animal: Beaver
Mineral: Crysacola
Color: Blue
Plant: Blue Commis
Clan: Turtle
Element: Earth

Characteristics: The Frogs Return Moon is the second moon of Wabun of the East. The stone for this moon is placed midway between the eastern and southern stones in the outer circle of the Medicine Wheel. The mineral totem for the moon is the chrysocolla, the plant is the blue camas, and the animal is the beaver. The color is blue and the elemental clan influence is the Turtle clan.

From the chrysocolla, people in this position learn to balance the earth and sky within themselves; from the blue camas, to sustain themselves and others; from the beaver, to make all environments as pleasant as possible. This is the position to explore when you wish to learn about stability, the value of hard work, luck, and your ability to create and maintain an orderly and beautiful environment. The Frogs Return Moon will teach you about perseverance, patience, stability, and practicality. People in this position need to guard against being too stubborn, overindulging, and holding back all their feelings.

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Moon: Corn Planting Moon 
May 21 to June 20 
*** Blackfoot *** 
May - 0-TSI-KSS-TSI?O-TSI-TAI-TS-IH-PI - 
- When the Buffalo Plant is in Flower 
June -MI-SOM-SOO-TA - Long Rain

Power Animal: Deer
Mineral: Moss agate
Color: Green and white
Plant: Yarrow
Clan: Butterfly
Element: Air

Characteristics: The Corn planting Moon is the third moon of Wabun, the Spirit Keeper of the East. The stone representing this moon is placed three quarters of the way between the eastern and southern stones in the outer circle of the Medicine Wheel. The mineral totem for the Corn planting Moon is the moss agate. The plant totem is the yarrow, and the animal is the deer. The colors are green and white, and the elemental influence is from the Butterfly clan.

The moss agate teaches people in this position to clearly see their link with the mineral and plant kingdoms. The yarrow teaches about both cleansing and strengthening. The deer demonstrates the beauty of grace and quick movement. This position teaches about beauty in yourself, in others, and in your environment and teaches about your own healing abilities. This position will point out any cutting edges in your personality, the necessity of balancing time and energy, and your ability to create. People experiencing the deer position need to learn to be more consistent, less suspicious, and more willing to show some of their own deep feelings.

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South - Rapid Growth and Trust 
Moon: Strong Sun Moon; Warming Sun Moon 
Spirit Keeper of the South 
June 21 to July 22 
*** Blackfoot *** 
JUNE -MI-SOM-SOO-TA - Long Rain 
JULY - II-TOH-TOT-TO-TSI-MA-TA-PI-WA
WHEN PEOPLE MOVE CAMP TOGETHER

Power Animal: Flicker (large woodpecker)
Mineral: Rose quartz, Carnelian agate
Color: Pink
Plant: Wild rose
Clan: Frog
Element: Water

Characteristics: The Strong Sun Moon is the first moon of Shawnodese, Spirit Keeper of the South, and occurs at the time of the summer solstice. The stone honoring this position is placed one quarter of the way between the southern and western stones of the Medicine Wheel. The mineral totem for the Strong Sun Moon is carnelian agate, the plant is the wild rose, and the animal is the flicker. The color is pink, and the elemental influence is from the Frog clan.

From the carnelian, people experiencing this position can learn about their strong heart connection; from the rose, about their ability both to heal and to inspire; and from the flicker, about their desire for self expression. The Strong Sun Moon teaches about the importance of the emotions and the need for a strong home base. People experiencing the energy of this position are intuitive and wild in some aspects of being, but conservative and home loving in others. The Strong Sun Moon will educate you about the law of relationship and about family, mothering, and nurturing. While working with the flicker you must guard against wallowing in all your emotions and about fearing to take any stand.

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Moon: Ripe Berries Moon 
July 23 to August 22 
*** Blackfoot *** 
July - II-Toh-Tot-To-Tsi-Ma-Ta-Pi-Wa
When People Move Camp Together 
August - Pak-Ki-Pis-Tsi'o-Taa'-T-Ts-Pi
When the choke Cherries Are Ripe

Power Animal: Sturgeon
Mineral: Garnet, iron
Color: Red
Plant: Raspberry
Clan: Thunderbird
Element: Fire

Characteristics: The second moon of Shawnodese, Spirit Keeper of the South is the Ripe Berries Moon. The stone for this position is placed midway between the southern and western stones in the outer circle of the Medicine Wheel. Iron and garnet are the mineral totems for this moon, raspberry is the plant totem, and the sturgeon is the animal totem. The color is red, and the position is influenced by the Thunderbird clan.

Iron teaches people in this position about their strength and garnet shows them their heart is the source of that strength. From the raspberry they learn about their sweetness and the thorns they project to protect this part of them selves from other people. The sturgeon show them their depth and their need to teach. The Ripe Berries Moon teaches them how to work from the heart center, how to demonstrate affection, how to face fears, and how to develop leadership abilities. This moon helps develop courage and power. People experiencing the sturgeon energy need to guard against impulsiveness, arrogance, and a tendency to dominate any scenario.

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Moon: Harvest Moon 
August 23 to September 22 
*** Blackfoot *** 
August - Pak-Ki-Pis-Tsi'o-Taa'-T-Ts-Pi
When the choke Cherries Are Ripe 
September - II-Ta-Wa-Pi'-Ts-ko
When the Leaves Change Color

Power Animal: Brown bear
Mineral: Amethyst
Color: Purple
Plant: Violet
Clan: Turtle
Element: Earth

Characteristics: The Harvest Moon is the last moon of Shawnodese of the South. The stone honoring this position is placed three quarters of the way between the southern and western stones. The mineral totem for this position is the amethyst, the plant totem is the violet, and the animal totem is the brown bear. The color is purple, and the elemental influence comes from the Turtle clan.

The amethyst can teach people experiencing this moon about good judgment and justice; the violet, about their ability to penetrate to secret regions of the heart and soul; and the brown bear, about their capacity for creative curiosity. The Harvest Moon teaches about discrimination, fair decisions, good sense, perseverance, confidence, and the ability to analyze. The energy of this position is one of balance, rationality, and practicality. This is the place on the wheel that will help you truly understand the concepts of work and duty. In the brown bear place you need to guard against being overly critical of others, or cynical about life.

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West - Strength and Introspection 
Spirit Keeper of the West 
September 23 to October 23 
*** Blackfoot *** 
September - II-Ta-Wa-Pi'-Ts-ko
When the Leaves Change Color 
OCTOBER - SAI-Al-KSI-II-TOH-OMA-TO-OYII - 
WHEN THE GEESE LEAVE

Moon: Ducks flying moon; cooling sun moon
Power Animal: Raven
Mineral: Jasper
Color: Brown
Plant: Mullein
Clan: Butterfly
Element: Air

Characteristics: The Ducks Fly Moon is the first moon of Mudjekeewis, the Spirit Keeper of the West and occurs at the time of the autumn equinox. The stone honoring this moon is placed one quarter of the way, moving clockwise, between the southern and western stones. The mineral totem for this moon is jasper, usually of the bloodstone variety; the plant is the mullein; and the animal is the raven. The color is brown, and the elemental clan influencing this moon is the Butterfly clan.

From the jasper, people experiencing this energy can learn how to draw both the earth and sun energy into their being and how to understand the messages of the heart. From the mullein they can learn about their abilities both to soothe and to irritate. From the raven they will gain understanding of their relationships with groups, and their ability to soar and dive. This is the position in which you can learn what balance truly is, even if you need to experience discomfort in order to do so. People experiencing the Ducks Fly Moon can rapidly go from one idea, concept, or mood to its opposite. This position can teach how to show physical affection and how to be comfortable both in earth and sky. People experiencing the raven energy must be careful not to be totally indecisive, and so changeable they confuse even themselves.

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Moon: Freeze up moon - Cooling Sun Moon 
October 24 to November 21 
*** Blackfoot *** 
OCTOBER - SAI-Al-KSI-II-TOH-OMA-TO-OYII - 
WHEN THE GEESE LEAVE 
NOVEMBER - II-TOA-TS-STO-YII - 
WHEN THE COLD COMES

Power animal: Snake
Mineral: Malachite, copper
Color: Orange
Plant: Thistle
Clan: Frog
Element: Water

Characteristic: The Freeze Up Moon (October 24 to November 21) is the middle moon of Mudjekeewis of the West. The stone honoring this time is placed midway between the western and northern stones in the outer circle of the Wheel.

Copper teaches people experiencing the Freeze Up Moon about how to focus their energies and malachite teaches them to be more sensitive to all energies. The thistle demonstrates healing abilities and versatility. The snake teaches adaptability and the capacity to silently travel to places others might fear to go. This is the position to learn how to travel between the different realms of creation and how to become a messenger for the spiritual aspects of life. The snake position will teach you about the extent of your own energy, your ability to create change, your inquisitiveness, your desire for truth, and your keen sight. When working with the Freeze Up Moon you must be careful to keep yourself grounded and not to become too suspicious of people.

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Moon phase: Long Snows Moon 
November 22 to December 21 
*** Blackfoot *** 
NOVEMBER - II-TOA-TS-STO-YII - 
WHEN THE COLD COMES 
DECEMBER - IS-STA-M-SII-WA - COLD MONTH

Power animal: Elk
Mineral: Obsidian
Color: Black
Plant: Black Spruce
Clan: Thunderbird
Element: Fire

Characteristic: The Long Snows Moon is the last moon of Mudjekeewis and the final moon of the year. Moving clockwise, the stone representing this position is three quarters of the way between the western and northern stones of the wheel. Obsidian is the mineral totem, the black spruce is the plant totem, and the elk is the animal totem. The color is black and the elemental influence comes from the Thunderbird clan.

From obsidian, people experiencing this position can learn about their ability to perceive and mirror the thoughts and feelings of others. The black spruce teaches how to be soft and strong at the same time, and the elk demonstrates the power of beauty, majesty, and cooperation. This is the position in which to learn about your desire for justice, and your ability to live with the dualities of nature and life. The Long Snows Moon teaches about mental strength, deep fear of emotions, relationships, teaching, and communicating. People in the elk position are insightful, independent, fearless, determined, and open hearted. They need to guard against being overly argumentative and erratic in intimate relationships.

 
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